When it comes to health insurance people tend to think that they're overpaying for the coverage they get. The rationale is that if the people in this income group are forced to pay more money one way or another, most would choose to purchase hospital insurance with it, with the possibility of a benefit in the event that they need private hospital treatment - rather than pay it in the form of extra tax as well as having to meet their own private hospital costs.
For small groups, most insurance companies' use pooled rates under which a uniform rate is applied to all such groups, although it is becoming more common to apply separate pooled rates for groups with significantly better or worse experience than that of the total class.
Lifetime Health Cover: If a person has not taken out private hospital cover by 1 July after their 31st birthday, then when (and if) they do so after this time, their premiums must include a loading of 2% per annum for each year they were without hospital cover.
And it turns out, unsurprisingly, that the choices made by those who bought their plans off-marketplace - by definition, unsubsidized - look much like the choices of unsubsidized marketplace enrollees: a lot of bronze, but also a lot of gold and platinum.
Some time ago I calculated that the weighted average actuarial value for plans sold on the marketplace in 2016 was just about 80%, (The actuarial value is the percentage of the average enrollee's yearly medical costs that the plan is designed to pay.) 80% AV is close to the average for employer-sponsored health plans, and it sounds good, but it masks a sharp division.